Sunday, January 12, 2020
The impact of environmental and government regulations made United Parcel Service (UPS) an innovative company that developed a strategic environmental management system that adheres to the principles of ISO 14001 standard (UPS 2010 sustainability report, 2010). To ensure compliance with regulations in the various countries and the United States, UPS has region environmental mangers and district environmental coordinators within their operations. The managers have access to training programs that include but not limited to water and air quality, transportation environmental, hazardous waste management and underground storage tanks (UPS 2010 sustainability report, 2010). UPS was a member of the U.S. Environmental Protections AgencyÃ¢â¬â¢s (EPA) SmartWay program that was discontinue in 2010. UPS joined EPAÃ¢â¬â¢s Climate Leaders program that advocated companies developing comprehensives strategies pertaining to ensuring safeguarding the climate, this program ended in September 2011 (UPS 2010 sustainability report, 2010). In 2010, UPS achieve a 6.1 % emissions index reduction that exceeded the EPA Climate Leader goals (UPS 2010 sustainability report, 2010). The company introduced the Eco responsible Packaging Program that uses cube optimization, meaning that packaging is only as large as it needs to be for shipping, the materials for packaging are environmentally friendly. The carbon neutral shipping expanded to 36 other countries (UPS 2010 sustainability report, 2010). This program using carbon offsets reduces the carbon emissions associated with shipping reducing UPS carbon impact. UPS begin facing the possibility of the depletion of scarce resources before most companies. As early as 1935, UPS begin to use alternative-fuel vehicles for transporting to the many various points across our nation. The 1,900 alternative fuel and technological advanced vehicles today are a small part of a long-run plan to protect the resources of the future (UPS 2010 sustainability report, 2010). UPS continues to find alternatives to developing ways in reducing their carbon imprint and preserving our natural resources. Air transportation leaves the bigger carbon imprint using a transportation index UPS continue to pursue strategies in that area for carbon avoidance which focus on a decarbonization synergy strategy to reducing air fleet emissions (UPS 2010 sustainability report, 2010). This involve in the long-term fuel efficiency aircraft and using biofuels. UPS continues to analyze water usage and consumption in their foreign hubs, using the global water tool of theÃ World Business council for Sustainable Development, maintain a low water use (UPS 2010 sustainability report, 2010). UPS reduce their water consumption by 1 percent from the 2009 level (UPS 2010 sustainability report, 2010). Some of the ways UPS was able to do this was by only washing their vehicle when needed, dry washing their airplanes and use environmental friendly washing agent that reduces the need to ri nse. When UPS facilities expanded low-flow water fixtures was included in the design of the newer facilities in different countries and older facilities upgraded to include the fixtures (UPS 2010 sustainability report, 2010). An example of this is their LEED design headquarters that won gold status certification and an energy star stamp for energy efficiency (French, 2012). Their headquarters built in a forest that use 35 acres and left the rest of the forest surrounding the building including a preserved natural brook (French, 2012). As the building ages, upgrades continue to meet and adhere to the challenges of being a green building. UPS continues to be on the cutting edge as a company invested in preserving resources and developing an alternative, so that in the end the next generation has a chance at life. Being innovative in sustainability benefits the company in a strong demand for their services and products. The environment benefits from the reduction in carbon emissions by using variety of transportation for shipping it ensures the lowest combination of carbon impact and UPS meets the needs of their customers (UPS 2010 sustainability report, 2010). UPS needs to continue to be proactive, innovative and continuing to developing as a sustainable company. In continuing to be innovative, they are also a profitable company because customers see them as an environmentally active company that is trying to reduce their impact on the environment by leaving a better way of doing business. This show that companies can still make a profit and take care of the environment as a sustainable partner with the world. UPS embodies corporate citizenship in their leadership in redefining the transportation options for air and ground that can be a model for future business in how to protect and preserve the environment. The advance and innovative facilities built and upgraded in the various countries is another sign of their corporate citizenship. UPS worked in two of EPAÃ¢â¬â¢s program, which add to their knowledge, and analysis of how to develop and reduce their carbon imprint, reduce their emissions and lowered their waterÃ consumptions to name a few. UPS operates the largest private alternative fuel fleet in the air and freight industry and continues to grow in this area as they continue to use their vehicles as laboratories in experimenting with new technologies and advancements in fuels (UPS 2010 sustainability report, 2010). The eco-friendly packaging that UPS uses includes recycled fiber envelopes and boxes that eliminated bleached paper (UPS 2010 sustainability report, 2010). In following their own instincts and guidelines, UPS has become the model for other corporations to follow in maintain a responsible, sustainable relationship in the many communities that they operate in around the world. References French, M. (2012, January 01). [Web log message]. Retrieved February 5, 2012 from http://blog.ups.com/2012/01/10/leed-a-building-to-water-and-it-wont-drink-as-much UPS 2010 sustainability report. (2010). Retrieved January 27, 2012 from http://www.investors.ups.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=62900&p=irol-irhome
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Pueblo Bonito is an important Ancestral Puebloan (Anasazi)Ã site and one of the largest Great House sites in the Chaco Canyon region. It was constructed over a period of 300 years, between AD 850 and 1150-1200 and it was abandoned at the end of the 13th century. Architecture at Pueblo Bonito The site has a semicircular shape with clusters of rectangular rooms that served for dwelling and storage. Pueblo Bonito has more than 600 rooms arranged on multistory levels. These rooms enclose a central plaza in which the Puebloans built kivas, semi-subterranean chambers used for collective ceremonies. This construction pattern is typical of Great House sites in the Chacoan region during the heyday of ancestral Puebloan culture. Between AD 1000 and 1150, a period called by archaeologists Bonito phase, Pueblo Bonito was the main center of the Puebloan groups living at Chaco Canyon. The majority of the rooms at Pueblo Bonito have been interpreted as the houses of extended families or clans, but surprisingly few of these rooms present evidence of domestic activities. This fact along with the presence of 32 kivas and 3 great kivas, as well as the evidence for communal ritual activities, like feasting, make some archaeologists suggest that Pueblo Bonito had an important religious, political and economic function in the Chaco system. Luxury Goods at Pueblo Bonito A further aspect that supports the centrality of Pueblo Bonito in the Chaco Canyon region is the presence of luxury goods imported through long-distance trade. Turquoise and shell inlays, copper bells, incense burners, and marine shell trumpets, as well as cylindrical vessels and macaw skeletons, have been found in tombs and rooms within the site. These items arrived at Chaco and Pueblo Bonito through a sophisticated system of roads that connect some of the main great houses across the landscape and whose function and significance have always puzzled archaeologists. These long-distance items speak for a highly specialized elite living at Pueblo Bonito, probably involved in rituals and collective ceremonies. Archaeologists believe that the power of the people living at Pueblo Bonito came from its centrality in the sacred landscape of ancestral Puebloans and their unifying role in the ritual life of the Chacoan peoples. Recent chemical analyses on some of the cylindrical vessels found at Pueblo Bonito have shown traces of cacao. This plant not only comes from southern Mesoamerica, thousands of miles south of Chaco Canyon, but its consumption is historically linked to elite ceremonies. Social Organization Although the presence of social ranking at Pueblo Bonito and in Chaco Canyon has now been proven and accepted, archaeologists disagree on the type of social organization that governed these communities. Some archaeologists propose that communities in Chaco Canyon remained connected through time on a more egalitarian basis, while others argue that after AD 1000 Pueblo Bonito was the head of a centralized regional hierarchy. Regardless of the social organization of Chacoan people, archaeologists agree that by the end of the 13th century Pueblo Bonito was completely abandoned and the Chaco system collapsed. Pueblo Bonito Abandonment and Population Dispersion Cycles of droughts starting at around AD 1130 and lasting until the end of the 12th century made living at Chaco really difficult for ancestral Puebloans. The population abandoned many of the great house centers and dispersed into the smaller ones. At Pueblo Bonito new construction ceased and many rooms were abandoned. Archaeologists agree that due to this climatic change, the resources needed to organize these social gatherings were no longer available and so the regional system declined. Archaeologists can use precise data about these droughts and how they affected the population at Chaco thanks to a sequence of tree-ring dates coming from a series of wooden beams preserved in many structures at Pueblo Bonito as well as other sites within Chaco Canyon. Some archaeologists believe that for a short time after the decline of Chaco Canyon, the complex of Aztec Ruins--an outlier, northern siteÃ¢â¬âbecame an important post-Chaco center. Eventually, though, Chaco became only a place linked to a glorious past in the memory of Puebloan societies who still believe the ruins are the homes of their ancestors. Sources This glossary entry is a part of the About.com guide to the AnasaziÃ (Ancestral Puebloan Society), and the Dictionary of Archaeology.Cordell, Linda 1997 Archaeology of the Southwest. Academic PressFrazier, Kendrick 2005. People of Chaco. A Canyon and its People. Uppdated and Expanded. W.W. Norton Company, New YorkPauketat, Timothy R and Diana di Paolo Loren (eds.) 2005 North American Archaeology. Blackwell Publishing
Friday, December 27, 2019
Lauren LaChance 7-21-15 Fahrenheit 451 Report Fahrenheit 451 Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury is a dystopian fiction novel, published nearly halfway through the Cold War. Due to the era it was written, the civilians of this dystopian society constantly live in fear of war breaking out. In this novel, books are forbidden to keep everyone from having differing or opposing opinions. The government fears individuality and conflict so they regulate all media consumed by their citizens to ensure that everyone has the same opinion about everything, supposedly preventing inequality and unhappiness by doing so. The main character in this book is Guy Montag (prominently known as Montag), a fireman who lived his life in mediocre routine as a fireman with a stranger of a wife, Mildred (Millie). Only, the firemen in this novel make fires instead of putting them out. One day while Montag was is walking home after a long day at work, he feels like someone is watching him. As he turns a corner, he sees a girl standing there who introduces herself as Clarisse McClellan, a crazy seventeen year old girl who is also MontagÃ¢â¬â¢s new next door neighbor. As Clarisse talks to Montag, she asks him many questions about his job and even his life that makes him realize that there are people that are different than him and even makes him question his happiness. The same night that Montag encountered Clarisse, he walks into his home, hangs his coat up, and continues thinking about what she had said to him.Show MoreRelatedFahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury719 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThe flash point of paper, or the temperature at which paper will burst in flames, is 451 degrees Fahrenheit. In Fahrenheit 451, written by Ray Bradbury, the main character, Guy Montag, is a Ã¢â¬Å"firemanÃ¢â¬ in a futuristic society where he and his coworkers start fires, rather than put them out. Books are banned and burned, along with the owner of the bookÃ¢â¬â¢s house and sometimes even the owner of the book, upon discovery. Technology has taken over in a sense that social interaction between the average personRead MoreFahrenheit 451 By Ray Bradbury1952 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesis clearly displayed in the plight of Ray BradburyÃ¢â¬â¢s novel about a dystopian American society, Fahrenheit 451, which contains many ideas and bits of content that some people believed should be censored. In fact, one of the reasons that this novel was censored for displaying the dangers of censorship, which is both extremely ironic, and telling as to where this society is going. Thanks to several distributors and oversensitive parents and teachers, Fahrenheit 451 has been banned in many schools overRead MoreFahrenheit 451 By Ray Bradbury954 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages In Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury, the author uses allegory (often misinterpreted by readers) to show the dangers of mass media consumption and the decline of reading traditional media. Many readers draw incorrect conclusions (lessons learned) from the book due to how generally the book applies its theme. Government censorship, though an important topic, is not the intended focus of the novel Fahrenheit 451. Finally, BradburyÃ¢â¬â¢s original message of the book shows the beauty of traditional media andRead MoreFahrenheit 451 By Ray Bradbury1592 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWhen writing the introduction to Fah renheit 451, author Neil Gaiman stated that Ã¢â¬Å"ideas--written ideas--are special. They are the way we transmit our stories and our thoughts from one generation to the next. If we lose them, we lose our shared historyÃ¢â¬ . Gaiman is absolutely correct; especially because what he is saying heavily applies to books. Books are a critical aspect in shaping humanity as a whole, they create and share a network of creative ideas, history, and overall entertainment; to loseRead MoreFahrenheit 451 By Ray Bradbury918 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"Fahrenheit 451,Ã¢â¬ written by Ray Bradbury, is a futuristic, dystopian novel based upon a society secluded by technology and ignorance. In this future society, books are outlawed and firemen are presented with the task of burning books that are found in peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s homes. Montag, a fireman, finds himself intrigued with the books, and begins to take them home and read them. As the story progresses, Montag learns the truth behind why books are outlawed and flees his city to join the last remnants of age-oldRead MoreFahrenheit 451 By Ray Bradbury847 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSet Knowledge On Fire The book Fahrenheit 451 is a postmodern work by Ray Bradbury first published in 1951. In BradburyÃ¢â¬â¢s story, all books are illegal and are subject to be burned by firemen. Furthermore, the two predominant themes of Fahrenheit 451 are censorship and ignorance. The censorship implemented over the years removes all information from society that is necessary to learn, which accomplishes to prevent people from questioning anything. The ignorance of society has been fostered and theRead MoreFahrenheit 451 By Ray Bradbury1661 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages1.) In the novel, Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury, MontagÃ¢â¬â¢s view on life reverses. Two characters the influence the main character Guy Montag are the old lady whose house and books were burnt down and Mildred. The old lady was caught preserving books in her home. Firemen including Montag were ordered to burn the books. The old lady refused to leave her books, so she too was burned. She bravely gave an allusion as her last words, Ã¢â¬Å"Play the man,Ã¢â¬â¢ she said, Ã¢â¬ËMaster Ridley.Ã¢â¬â¢ Something, somethingRead MoreFahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury818 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesFAHRENHEIT 451 BY RAY BRADBURY Important People in MontagÃ¢â¬â¢s Life In Partical Fulfillment Of English 2 Ms Irina Abramov By Helen Hernandez November 9, 2012 Ã¢â¬Å"There are worse crimes than burning books. One of them is not reading themÃ¢â¬ -Ray Bradbury. In the past there were events that affected book writers. People will get together to burn books because they thought it was inappropriate or they were against their literature. Montag is a fireman in a futuristic society who would startRead MoreFahrenheit 451 By Ray Bradbury863 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe novel, Fahrenheit 451 was written by Ray Bradbury and it took place in the dystopian future. Throughout each novel, we are able to see a major theme, which is censorship. In this essay, I will explain how this theme are explored in the story by using the literary devices. To begin with, in this novel, censorship is not given a straight description, but we can see how the author shows it through many literary elements, such as using the setting, tone and symbolisms even foreshadowing. This novelRead MoreFahrenheit 451 By Ray Bradbury1544 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesRay Bradbury, the author of Fahrenheit 451, expresses his perspective on life in an interview. His interview contains a common theme: Do what you love, and love what you do (Bradbury). Bradbury sends a message in his interview that people should love life, and live to the fullest because he believes life is a beautiful thing. Although Bradbury no longer can demonstrate his love for life his message still lives in the pages of Fahrenheit 451. The Government of the society in the novel has told their
Thursday, December 19, 2019
SELF-PORTRAIT ART ESSAY Self-portraits have been used by artists for centuries to explore aspects of the self. They are the subjects they know best and artists have reflected this through their treatment of media, subject matter and techniques. Two artists who explore aspects of their personality and life experiences in their self-portraits are Frida Kahlo and Ben Quilty. Many of their artistic techniques can be derived from the same origins. Whilst there are similarities in self-portraits by any artist usually, you will find differences the norm. After all, this is what makes art and art form. Frida Kahlo, one of many world renowned artists from the 1930s, was a revolutionary. Alongside Pablo Picasso, Francis Bacon and WassilyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Although the Hummingbird is seen as a charm it seems to mirror her infamously shaped eyebrows. Her mother was a devout Catholic and passed these strong values down to her daughter, Frida. This can be seen through the crown of thorns around her neck rather than her head, showing herself as a Christian Martyr. The subtle blood that is trickling down her neck may represent that of her ongoing pain through her divorce. The contrasting butterflies on her headdress and bright background of leaves are suggestive of resurrection. Over the left-hand side, a monkey can be seen distracted playing with its hands. It was also a gift from Diego and a symbol of the devil she feels he is. As seen on her left-hand side a Black Cat can be noticed staring down the Hummingbird. Perhaps it is ready to feast on the good as it is a symbol of bad luck. She had experienced great trauma and pain in her life and this could be seen as the bad luck symbolised through the cat. To leave a blank background would be unlike Kahlo; the bright and varied shades of greens and yellows seem to show a wall of uncont rolled nature, possibly expressing her feelings at the time. Looking to the upper half of the painting Dragonflies and Butterflies fly around her hair that is intertwined with cloth, delineating a figure eight like crown filled with purples and maroon. We see the life filled Dragonflies and ButterfliesShow MoreRelatedCompare and Contrast of the Paintings: Man in a Red Turban and Louis XIV by Van Eyck and Rigaud886 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthe history of art, there has always been a plethora of portraiture, no matter the time period or the medium whether is be sculptures, paintings or even carvings. Humans have always been fascinated with themselves and the way others look. But itÃ¢â¬â¢s not always about vanity, it means so much more and can be conveyed in many different ways. In some cases, the artists moved beyond that of a simple likeness and can instill different emotions in the viewer. That being said, in this essay I will compareRead MoreSybil Vanes Symbolic Role in The Portrait of Dorian Gray by Oscar Wilde981 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesshe plays a symbolic role in Dorian GrayÃ¢â¬â¢s life. This essay will explore how SybilÃ¢â¬â¢s character initially influences Dorian in a positive way, giving him the motive to turn away from decadence but subsequently brings about his downfall. Recurring themes will be discussed such as the aesthetic and references will be given to show examples of SybilÃ¢â¬â¢s symbolic role in his life. A summary will follow, giving a brief synopsis concluding the essays arguments. Wilde describes the younger Dorian Gray asRead MoreThe Work Of Egon Schiele1448 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIntroduction The work of Egon Schiele is very important to me personally. In this Extended Essay I focus on Egon Schiele because his artworks influence me. He likes to show his hands in his painting and photos. In his self-painting, I can always find out that the hands always attract my eyes. His hands really impress me and I really like his hands. This gives me an idea that to put my own hands on the social software and see that will people love my hands in this era. Now, I think the answer isRead MoreWhat Makes Art Art Essay596 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesÃ Ã Art 1030: Art Appreciation Instructor: Steve Bishop Essay One Josalyn Cook 1/26/2011 What Makes Art Art? Art is an object or piece of work that brings one pleasure. Art is also something you see or feel and you cannot even begin to describe the ways you like it or how it makes you feel. Art is something that portrays beauty and happiness. Art lets you see the world through another personÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective. Most art seems to tell a story about where a person has been and theRead MoreSigns and Symbols Art Essay1427 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThis essay will consider two artists that work are defined as being characterised by signs and symbols and use art as means of communicating with the world they live in; Dutch painter Vincent Van Gogh (1853-1890) and Australian artist Brett Whiteley (1939-1992). Signs and symbols form the basis of how art is observed and interpreted. They represent an idea that an artist is trying to convey to their audience. Signs and symbols can be in the colour scheme, the depiction of subjects and the art elementsRead MoreThe Photographic Portrait Of Art1335 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesA portrait in art as we know is an artistÃ¢â¬â¢s representation of another person or oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self, in which the face is the main subject matter. As one of the most widely used forms of art adopted by painters, sculptures and photographers, at some point in our lives we have all had our portrait taken either it being in a photographic studio, sat for a fine artist or in your local post office in the passport photo booth. The photographic portrait is a paradox of everlasting contradictions and whether identityRead MoreAnalysis Of Jacque Lacan s The Mirror Stage1644 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMirror Stage for the second time this semester I started thinking about my own younger b rotherÃ¢â¬â¢s introduction to the mirror a few years ago. As I was trying to remember this interaction, I came to the realization that his first interaction with his Ã¢â¬Å"selfÃ¢â¬ wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t with a mirror at all- it was actually with an iPhoneÃ¢â¬â¢s front facing camera- used as a form of distraction while he sat in his highchair. This made start thinking about the fact that the recent generations are the first who do not need a mirrorRead MoreGender Roles : Women, Gender, Sexuality And Other Facets Of Identity1623 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagessexuality and other facets of identityÃ¢â¬ . (Judith Butler, 1990) This essay will consider three distinctive examples of how artists have questioned gendered stereotypes over time. The essay will also explore examples of female being represented as male and male being represented as female in different time period, ethnicity and class. First, I will consider the classical art from Ancient Egypt of the 18th dynasty with hard evidence of portrait sculptures of Queen Hatshesut, the 18th dynasty pharaoh (1508-1458Read MoreA Portrait Of The Artist As A Young Man1594 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages EL111 The purpose of this essay is to discuss how James JoyceÃ¢â¬â¢s seminal novel A Portrait of the Artist as a young man, is experimental with regards to plot, point of view, language, symbolism, style and character development, and will begin with a brief introduction. Many artists, be they of the pen, brush or instrument, seek through innovation an artistic immortality that has the potential to act as a blueprint from which imitation is spawned. JoyceÃ¢â¬â¢s Portrait is at its core innovative pioneeringRead MoreRevolutionary Ideas Can Be Proposed Through Art And Design1706 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesz5093534 Deep Dutta Revolutionary ideas can be proposed through art and design. Compare and contrast two revolutionary creative works, one from the 20th century and one from the 21st century. How has the context contributed to the approach, medium and presentation of the works? Leo Tolstoy described art as Ã¢â¬Å"one of the means of intercourse between man and manÃ¢â¬ in his book, Ã¢â¬ËWhat is Art?Ã¢â¬â¢(1897).This is true when we stand beside strangers in an art gallery, and gaze at an artistÃ¢â¬â¢s work. One might praise the
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Question: Explain the basic Principles of Financial Accounting and Management Accounting as they apply to a Business Organization of their Choice. Answer: Introduction During 1844, the German immigrant Henry Lehman started his business journey with the grocery shop in small city of United States. Eventually, the company expanded the capital market through commercial paper trading that led their position as the official dealer of the US treasury (Mensah, 2015). However, the happy days of the company started ending with the 2007 financial year closing. Analysis of financial statement The given case study of Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc. represented their quarterly income statement and the quarterly balance sheet for the financial year 2007-08. The income statement revealed the quarterly financial data for the months of August 2007, November 2007, February 2008, May 2008 and August 2008. Further, the balance sheet revealed the quarterly financial data for the months of August 2007, November 2007, February 2008 and May 2008 (Fleming Sarkar, 2014). It can be identified from the financial statement of the company that the total revenue of the company are in decreasing trend and fell to 2.40 in August 2008 from 14.74 in August 2007. Further, the the company was not able to generate any positive income and their loss after tax for August 2007 was 3.93 whereas the income after tax for that of August 2007 was 0.89. The earnings per share of the company was also in negative for August 2008 and that was 5.93 per share whereas, the EPS for August 2007 was 1.53. The total assets of the company were moving around 5.40 to 5.90 during the period and did not have any considerable change. On the other hand, the liabilities of the company were highest during February 2008 and amounted to 761.21 and it was lowest during May 2008 that amounted to 613.15 (Ahnert Kakhbod, 2017). Therefore, it can be said that the liquidity position of the company were improved. Identification of key ratios and ratio analysis Ratio calculation Ratio Formula Result Aug-07 Nov-07 Feb-08 May-08 Liquidity Ratio Current ratio Current asset /Current liabilities 0.62 0.64 0.63 0.65 Profitability ratio Return on sales ratio Operating profit / Net sales 0.08 0.09 0.06 -0.70 Return on Assets ratio Net sales / Average total assets 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.01 Solvency ratio Debt to equity ratio Total liabilities / Total equity 29.34 29.73 30.66 23.33 Equity ratio Total equity / Total assets 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.04 Analysis of ratio Liquidity ratio The liquidity ratio is calculated for measuring the ability of the company to pay back its current obligations. Further, the current ratio is used for taking rough measurement of financial health of the company. The current ratio of the company is moving around 0.60 to 0.65. Current ratio less than 1 indicates that the company is not in a good position to pay off their short-term, obligations with the available short-term assets. Profitability ratio the profitability ratio of any organization calculates its ability to convert its sales into income. Looking at the profitability ratio of the company, it is identified that return on sales of the company was moving around 6% to 9% till February 2008. However, during next quarter that is May 2008, the company was not even able to generate positive return on sales and the result was loss of 70% which was significantly high. The reason behind this was that the revenue for that quarter fell by more than 50% as compared to February 2008 quarter, whereas the expenses did not fall by this high percentage. Looking at the return on assets ratio of the company, it is identified that the return for the quarter May 2008 was 1%. However, it was consistent at 2% for the last three quarter. The reason for the fall in the return was fall in sales by more than 50% as compared to February 2008 quarter. The profitability ratio of the company is very low and they shall try to conve rt their sales into profit. Solvency ratio the solvency ratios states the ability of the company for making the payments and pay off the long-term liabilities to the shareholders, creditors, banks and financial institutions. Better position of solvency ratio states that the financial status and creditworthiness of the company is sound over the long-term. With regard to the debt to equity ratio, it is considered that lower the ratio better the stability of the company (Stein, 2013). Looking at the above table, it is recognized that the debt to equity ratio of the company is ranging from 20 to 30% that indicates that the company is financially stable. On the other hand, the equity ratio implies the amount of the assets financed through the investment from the owners through the comparison of total equity to the total assets of the company. The ratio states that higher the ratio, better the position of the company. However, the equity ratio of the company is considerably low and amounts to only 3 to 4%. Therefore , it is identified that the equity position of the company is significantly unfavourable. Arguments with regard to the success of the company One of the major reasons behind the failure of Lehman Brothers was the financial crisis. As per the arguments of Andrew Ross Sorkin, the government could save the company but not tried honestly. However, various factors were there that led to the failure of the firm. The reasons are as follows No buyer the very first and major issue was that the lack of buyer. If the other cases like Washinton Mutual, Merrill Lynch, Wachovia or Bear Sterns are considered, it can be recognized that they did not declared bankruptcy as they found buyers. However, Lehman did not found. Further, Bank of America was interested till they found that rather than Lehman they can opt for Merrill Lynch. Disastrous balance sheet as no buyer was there, the 2nd option for Federal Reserve was to overcome the situation through availing the emergency loan. However, the Federal Reserve decided not to lend them as they did not have strong collateral for offering back-up (Kim Song, 2017). As per the arguments, the Fed could have provide the loan, but as per the calculation they were not supposed to provide the loan as it was evidential that the central bank will expose to considerable loss, if they try to revive the institution. No political favour was there for the bailouts - the public was at that point getting to be noticeably impatient with the finance related industry. The possibility that the Treasury or Fed may venture in to salvage a firm like Lehman, and stick citizens with billions of dollars in losses, simply didn't fly politically. With different acquisitions, the losses were figured to be less huge, and an eager acquirer was ready. That way, it didn't appear like the foundation was basically strong, however that regardless it kind of unsuccessful, and was obtained by another bank (Fitzpatrick Thomson, 2016). Failure directly did not affect the average Americans - Obviously, when it came to AIG, no reasons made a difference. It was safeguarded the day after Lehman neglected to the tune of $85 billion. It additionally had no acquirer; its monetary record was likewise a wreck; and its misfortunes could likewise be very huge. However, the alterations to a limited extent, the governmental issues were totally extraordinary (Chen et al., 2013). A disappointment of Lehman would in a roundabout way influence all Americans. Be that as it may, its immediate losses would generally fall on the shoulders of institutional financial specialists and present and previous Lehman speculation investors who held the company's stock. A disappointment of AIG, be that as it may, would straightforwardly influence a colossal number of normal Americans. Impact of political competitive environment The favourable environment of any business is impacted by the circumstances of the economic conditions and financial market of the world. The favourable conditions of the business is characterized by high GDP growth, efficient and transparent capital markets, political conditions, active investors, liquid markets, strong earnings of business and low inflation (Gehrig Haas, 2016). The global environment with regard to the market was favourable for the company as well as for the business during the 2007-08. The favourable condition was the result of various factors like strong market for equity, continuing growth in GDP, tightening of credit spread, active volumes of trade and low interest rate by major central banks. Ethical considerations No one was sure regarding whether the reforms associated with Lehman Brothers were sufficient, whether they went far enough or whether they were dealing with the appropriate issues. Major ethical considerations with regard to Lehman were as follows Mischief during boom times - Standard way of thinking might be that mischief happens when the economy is not doing so great, however in many cases it is the inverse. To keep up a forceful pace of development, officials are regularly enticed to hide the inconveniences. After there is a financial disaster like the recession and organizations begin to fail, misconduct was found that may have occurred during boom. Further, during the boom period when things are going exceptionally well, there is an inclination not to ask regarding the suspicious things (Harris, 2013). Balance sheet tricks - governments and companies frequently utilize balance sheet dishonesty to keep away from full revelation of their finance related issues. That was unquestionably the case with Lehman, which incidentally dispatched resources for London during difficult period to influence advances to seem like income (Ball, 2016). One of the key issues individuals need to consider is if conducts can be actually inside the guidelines and in fact legitimate, it is an exceptionally inconspicuous and nuanced question yet it was an inquiry the researcher should have concentrated on. While implementing the ethical reforms, actual implementation process is as crucial as the original one. To be more specific, the reforms can be designed well, however, it it is not implemented intelligently, it will not be effective and can be unfavourable at the same time (Birkinshaw, 2017). External factors required to be considered Under the present global economy, most of the entities will have to expose themselves to various uncertain pressures from external environment that have considerable impact on the companys human resource aspect. Once successful, Lehman Brothers had a tough time mainly due to sub-prime crisis of mortgage, ongoing issues of contracted liquidity in economy under the banking system and global market of US. This significantly destroyed the operations of the company as the finances were severely impacted (Longworth, 2016). Owing to this, in association with external factors the company had to retrench 6000 of their employees. Further, the HR management of the company required to take into consideration the external factors like technology of the company, strategy, size, strategies of life cycle and structures. It was further recognized that the analysis of HR should have been able to evaluate the HRM policies and strategies to response and adopt the external as well as internal changes wit hin the organization. The company instead of cutting-off their employees could reduce their wages (Dumontaux Pop, 2013). Further, the company required to adopt the HRM strategies with regard to the alterations in external environment that is the job repackaging and temporary plan for the employees lay-off. Conclusion From the above discussion it is concluded that one of the major reasons that led to the significant fall of Lehman Brothers was the subprime crisis during 2007 that eventually led to the collapse of the company during the year 2008. It was recognized that various stakeholders were equally responsible for the crisis and the other responsible factors were excessive leverage, leadership issues, failure of measuring the risks like the value at risk and the poor regulation system of industries related to investment banking. Moreover, the role of some specific derivative instruments was also led to the collapse of the country. Recommendation It is recommended that the company should have managed its operation as per the conceptual framework and proper care should have been taken while dealing with subprime lending along with consideration of value at risk. Further, as the profitability ratio, equity ratio and liquidity ratio of the company were significantly low as compared to the industry standard, Lehman shall take into consideration these facts and try to balance their financial performance through paying off the short-term liabilities and increasing the equity ratio. Reference Ahnert, T., Kakhbod, A. (2017). Information choice and amplification of financial crises.The Review of Financial Studies,30(6), 2130-2178. Ball, L. (2016).The Fed and Lehman Brothers: Introduction and Summary(No. w22410). National Bureau of Economic Research. Birkinshaw, J. (2017). Lehman Brothers General Motors: contrasting models of failure.The Business Management Collection. Chen, R. R., Chidambaran, N. K., Imerman, M. B., Sopranzetti, B. J. (2013). Leverage, Liquidity, and Loss Spirals: Lessons from the Lehman Failure. Dumontaux, N., Pop, A. (2013). Understanding the market reaction to shockwaves: evidence from the failure of Lehman Brothers.Journal of Financial Stability,9(3), 269-286. Fitzpatrick IV, T. J., Thomson, J. B. (2016). Lehman Brothers bankruptcy, what lessons can be drawn?. InBanking Crises(pp. 213-220). Palgrave Macmillan UK. Fleming, M. J., Sarkar, A. (2014). The failure resolution of Lehman Brothers. Fleming, M., Sarkar, A. (2014). The failure resolution of Lehman Brothers, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.Econ Policy Rev. March,31. Gehrig, T., Haas, M. (2016). Anomalous Trading Prior to Lehman Brothers' Failure. Harris, R. (2013). Warning Signs Prior to the Financial Crisis of 2008: A Comparative Analysis.Journal of Management Engineering Integration,6(1), 88. Kim, D., Song, C. Y. (2017). Bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers: Determinants of Cross-country Impacts on Stock Market Volatility.International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues,7(3), 210-219. Longworth, D. (2016). Canadian Domestic Financial Policy Responses During the crisis itself, especially following the failure of Lehman Brothers in midSeptember 2008, the key financial policy response was liquidity provision to banks and borrowers by the Bank of Canada (BoC)(see chapter 6 in this volume for more information) and the federal.Crisis and Reform: Canada and the International Financial System. Mensah, J. M. K. (2015). The failure of Lehman Brothers: causes, preventive measures and recommendations.Browser Download This Paper. Stein, M. (2013). When does narcissistic leadership become problematic? Dick Fuld at Lehman Brothers.Journal of Management Inquiry,22(3), 282-293.
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
The Role Of Financial Stability In The Novel In Cold Blood Herb Clutter and his family possess it. Dick and Perry want it. It is often associated with the ideal existence. What is it exactly? It refers to financial stability. This is the state of not having to fret about paying the bills or providing for ones family and of not having to worry if one will eat on a given day. The concept of financial stability is central in the novel written by Truman Capote and inspired by real events entitled In Cold Blood. This issue is the backbone of the novel and is the chief motive for the murders committed in the story. Additionally, financial stability is an important component in the typical view of the American dream. It is fair to say that the Clutters embody this concept, which involves a pattern of social and personal virtue that is accompanied by financial stability. The opposite seems true for those characters of Dick and Perry who fail to exhibit virtuous behaviors and therefore, never attain financial stability. These characters embody the Am erican nightmare. Capote argues in his story that tragedy is not confined to the latter category and life is indeed a fragile thing. It may seem risky to say that a person who has attained financial stability has done so by exhibiting virtue. While in the real world this statement might not hold true, it is supported within the context of Capotes story. He introduces the Clutters as a financially stable family and as the embodiment of the American dream. He illustrates the virtues of Herb Clutter by stating his name was everywhere respectfully recognized (6) and he was known for his equanimity, his charitableness, and the fact that he paid good wages (10). Capote, when speaking of what Herb wanted to obtain in the world, says he had in large measure obtained it (6). Herb was a successful father, husband, businessman, and politician according to Capotes account. The success of his farmland was a direct result of his hard work (11-12). In addition, Herb was very prudent with his money. He never carried cash (46) and he was excellent at storing his assets (11). Herb Clutter obtained financial stability for his family through virtuous means. Thus his family, with respect to financial stability, embodied the American dream. Dick Hickock and Perry Smith, however, were not known for their virtue and respectability. While it is true today and was true at the time of the story that many profit from dishonesty, ultimately Dick and Perry were destroyed by it. It is fact that both Dick and Perry had served prison sentences for robbery in the past. Capote further illustrates the vices of Dicks personality when he uses the statement, I promise you, honey, well blast hair all over them walls (22) to portray Dick as a potential murderer. Capote also shows that Dick is a liar by revealing that he lied to his father about where he was going the night of the murders (23). It is fairly obvious that Capote is portraying Dick as a person who doesnt often exhibit virtue in his actions. Capote presents a similar idea about Perry when he reveals Perrys confession of murdering all four Clutters present at the house (255). Dick and Perry never attain financial stability and are, within Capotes story, the embodiment of the Am erican nightmare. It is possible that Capote is subtly equating this with their lack of virtue. Throughout the story Dick and Perry tried to come up with schemes to make money. Dick goes on a bad check writing spree and he promises to marry Maria who was the widow of a very prominent Mexican banker (118) in order to get money. In fact, the incident at the River Valley Ranch was meant to be a robbery and not a murder. Dick and Perry never seriously try to find honest ways to make money, rather they spend all their time scheming and violating others in order to get money. Their methods ultimately fail every time and they always find themselves broke shortly after scamming someone. Thus the pattern of dishonest and dishonorable behavior is a major component to
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Computer Addiction March 2, 2000 There once was a time when the only computers known to the average person were those the military possessed. Eventually, large corporations found many different uses for computers in the business world, and today, computers are as common in numerous households around the globe. People from all age groups are learning to operate computers and anyone who has worked with computers for long periods of time knows that computers can be just as addicting as smoking. Computer addiction can have a number of physical, social, and psychological effects on a person and it is to be taken as seriously as any other addiction that a person is battling. One common physical effect computer addiction can have on a person are back problems. Sitting for so long can take a toll on a person's muscles and can result in poor posture. Poor posture can result in chronic back problems that require the services of a chiropractor. Dry eyes, carpal tunnel syndrome, and vision complications are some eye problems caused by over use of a computer. Migraine headaches are quite common in computer addiction and are linked to the straining of the eyes. Because of the long hours spent engrossed in a computer, addicts often have eating irregularities, such as skipping meals and binge eating. Computer addicts experience sleep disturbances, or changes in sleeping patterns, which are most likely due to late hours on the computer and low blood sugar from eating irregularities. One last effect is the failure to attend to personal hygiene, such as bathing, combing hair and brushing teeth. All of these physical effects can be linked to computer addiction. Social effects of computer addiction include reduced time spent socializing with others. People may begin to feel that their computer is the only relationship that they have the time to focus on. They lose the desire for human contact and communication and in a way they are breaking away from reality. Lacking the desire to make contact with others, means lacking the desire to create new relationships or to build on already existing ones. After a certain amount of time, they lose their conversation skills completely. Within the lives of computer addicts it is their friends and family that suffer the most from this form of alienation. They are often moved to the very bottom of the computer addict's list of priorities. Computer addiction has the power to cause serious social effects and cannot be left untreated. Along with the physical and social effects of computer addiction there are also psychological effects. Some psychological symptoms experienced by computer addicts when they are not at the computer are feelings of depression, emptiness, irritability, distraction and withdrawal. Feelings that are common when addicts are at the computer are a sense of euphoria or well-being. These senses of complete ecstasy and pleasure also causes and inability for people who are addicted to computers to stop the activity. They end up having a constant craving for more time at the computer, and this is where one can identify an addiction. Along with addiction comes a need to cover up their secret and computer addicts often lie to those around them. For example lying to employers, and family members about their hours spent at the computer and also denying they have a problem. This lying a sneaking around eventually results in problems either at school or at work. The psychological effects of computer addiction may not only lead to distraction and emptiness but may also lead to critical depression. When people think of addictions, no one ever thinks of computer addiction to actually be common. In this age of computers, computer addiction will only increase as time passes. More and more people will experience the physical, social, and psychological effects of computer addiction but, thankfully, like other addictions, this condition is treatable.